MVO has established permanent monitoring stations in and around the volcano for the three techniques that form the cornerstones of the MVO's monitoringeffort. Seismic Monitoring is used to detect and locate the small earthquakes that accompany any eruption. Ground Deformation Monitoring uses GPS positioning and other techniques to measure the swelling of the ground that occurs during an eruption. Gas Monitoring is used to estimate the amounts of certain gases being emitted from the volcano, principally Sulphur Dioxide.
Many other techniques are used by the scientists at MVO, some in cooperation with other scientists. Observations of the size and condition of the dome are very important. These are based on satellite radar data and images from optical and thermal cameras, taken both from the helicopter and from fixed ground positions. Sampling and analysis of the volcanic deposits and ash is very important.